English Translation, Synonyms, Definitions and Usage Examples of Spanish Word ‘enuresis secundaria’. Determinar la prevalencia de enuresis nocturna en una zona básica de salud, la forma en que fue diagnosticada, Enuresis nocturna primaria y secundaria. Enuresis nocturna. Estudio Introduction: nocturnal enuresis (NE) is a common childhood health condition. .. Enuresis nocturna primaria y secundaria.

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HospitalHospital Universitario de Burgos. Hospital Universitario de Burgos. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. This secundariz causes personal and social repercussion.

The health professionals have to nkcturna an individualized and adequate management of this problem. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of NE in children between seven and ten years old of the city of Burgos. We have selected a random sample of school children in Burgos between 2 secunearia and 5 th year of Obligatory Primary Education. They have completed a questionnaire. NE is more frequent in males and children with familiar precedents of NE, with some type of chronic illness, with associated disorders of the sleep and behavior and with low academic performance.

There is a low diagnosis rate of NE in Burgos city.

Enuresis – Wikipedia

Nocturnal enuresis NE is a clinical entity defined by the last review of the International Children’s Continence Society ICCS as urinary incontinence while asleep in a child aged at least 5 years. The age at which it can first be diagnosed remains subject to debate, although 5 years is generally considered the age noctunra which the term NE first starts to apply.

Thus, when we care for a patient with NE in our paediatric practise, we are facing a complex health issue the management of which must be determined on a case-to-case basis. We designed an epidemiological study to gain a deeper understanding of the characteristics of the population of children with enuresis in the city of Burgos Spainand to identify the main risk factors associated with this condition. The reference population consisted of children aged 7 to 10 years enrolled in public, private, or subsidised private schools in the city of Burgos npcturna the — academic year.

The resulting sample size was children. Of the total of 41 institutions, and after obtaining the approval of the principal of each school, we included 31 schools in the sample. Each of these schools provided information on the number of classes and number of students in each class for the second and fifth year of the EPO. We used this information to stratify by class interval, after which we performed a random selection of classrooms.

The questionnaires were given to children and their families in the schools, and were completed after the legal guardians of participants provided the informed consent. The questionnaires were anonymous and consisted of 43 items organised into four sections: After collecting the questionnaires, we discarded all that were not completed or completed incorrectly, and all that did not meet the inclusion criteria children older than 10 years.

We calculated the odds ratio secundaaria qualitative variables that had secunvaria statistical significance, and the Pearson correlation coefficient for quantitative variables.

We collected a total number of questionnaires. The response rate was We discarded 95 of the questionnaires because they were not completed, were completed incorrectly, or were completed by participants older than 10 years. The final data included valid questionnaires, which amounted to The sample had a symmetrical distribution in terms of sex The mean number of siblings was 1. Most participants were Spanish nationals Of all parents, The prevalence of NE in our sample was 7. The rest of children with urinary incontinence were distributed between diurnal urinary secundaeia 0.

Table 1 shows the characteristics of the population of children with NE. The most salient findings in comparison to the rest of the sample were higher proportions of males, of children of separated or divorced parents, and of family history of NE. On the other hand, we found no significant differences in the mean age of children with NE compared to the rest of the sample, nor in the mean fnuresis of siblings or in nationality.


Furthermore, it is worth noting that only Last of all, we found it interesting that only Our assessment of possible risk factors associated with NE found a statistically significant correlation with several of them.

The strongest correlation corresponded to family history of NE, the presence of urethral syndrome and the presence of behavioural disorders almost always ADHD and poor academic performance Table 2. We did not find an association with other factors such as constipation, obesity, preterm birth or a personal history of urinary tract infection or kidney disease probably due to the low number of children with these conditions.

As for the attitudes of parents in regard to incontinence, we assessed their reaction to wetting episodes indifference, frustration, embarrassment, anger, or positive reinforcement. None of these attitudes predominated in either fathers or mothers, and they were irregularly distributed across the subset of children with urinary incontinence. We also found no differences in educational attainment between the parents of children with NE and the parents of noctura other children.

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secubdaria A first challenge in discussing nocturnal enuresis is its definition. For the purposes of this study, we used the latest definition provided by one of these institutions, the ICCS, in This peculiarity highlights the fact that the prevalence of NE depends to a great extent on cultural and social factors.

Such sociocultural factors play a role in starting toilet training at later ages or perceiving NE as a purely maturational or developmental process that carries no psychosocial consequences.

The comparative analysis of the population characteristics of children with NE showed that there was a predominance of males This seems to be related to a slower psychomotor development and skill acquisition in boys than in girls. Another aetiologic factor under study is the family history of NE. This was consistent with the findings in the medical literature, although there is a wide variation in the reported percentages, with the percentage we found being among the highest.

Some authors have proposed genetic factors as the cause for the association, but cultural factors have been proposed as well. Such cultural factors influence the way in which each family responds to NE from their own perspective and the particular relevance it attributes to NE. Thus, there is evidence that the choice to delay toilet training may influence delays in developing bladder control and lead to NE.

We would like to highlight the association between NE and the presence of urethral syndrome frequent urination, vesical tenesmus, urinary urgency, urinary retention.

The latter is the risk factor with the strongest association of all those we studied, which was also stronger than the association reported in other studies. Children with urethral syndrome and enuresis would be categorised into the primary non-monosymptomatic enuresis and secondary enuresis groups. Our study also found a higher prevalence of sleep and behavioural disorders in enuretic children.

We considered a sleep disorder any disturbance related to sleep and affecting its quality or quantity. Thus, sleep disorders included nightmares, night terrors, heavy snoring, apnoea or significant difficulty falling asleep.

This percentage was higher than in the rest of the sample As for behavioural disorders, the diagnosis received by all enuretic children with such a disorder was ADHD. We found this striking.

We also found an association between NE and poor academic performance in our series.

Term Bank – enuresis – Spanish English Dictionary

Academic performance was reported subjectively by the parents in response to a direct question, and we did not establish objective criteria for enurewis academic performance. Also, as with ADHD, it is difficult to tell which is the cause and which the effect.


We analysed other risk factors for which we found no statistically significant association, such as constipation, obesity, preterm birth and a previous history of urinary tract infection. It seems that there are still circumstances that prevent enuretic children from accessing care. We believe that this is due to parents lacking information on NE and feeling somewhat reluctant or unable to bring themselves to discuss the wetting episodes with the paediatrician.

Other studies have also identified this phenomenon which, combined with parental low educational attainment in some instances which was nocturnaa the case in our study leads to underdiagnosis of NE. Both of these circumstances suggest that enuretic children are not always assessed and treated appropriately. Another aim of this study was to assess the extent of the impact that NE had in the children of Burgos and their parents.

We were surprised to find that only We found the assessment of this aspect to be challenging, and we could not reach a clear conclusion. This may be due to the later start of collective activities camps, fieldtrips, etcso that NE has not yet become socially relevant. The findings of other studies on this aspect vary widely, but they generally showed a greater impact on children than the one found in our study.

In recent years, the understanding of nocturnal enuresis has grown among paediatricians and paediatric nurses. Parents are also more aware of this secunxaria. But we are still far from considering NE a condition that is generally diagnosed early and managed appropriately, as demonstrated by the results of our study. The prevalence of NE secunddaria the city of Burgos was lower than the prevalence reported in the literature.

This may be due to a greater knowledge and monitoring of the condition in our paediatric clinics. But there is still plenty of room for improvement, as evinced by the large percentage of incontinence cases for which no medical attention was sought. The population characteristics and risk factors of patients with NE resemble those found in similar populations.

The only salient difference was the higher prevalence of concomitant urethral syndrome in our study, of which the importance and impact on the patient is hard to assess. It is important that NE is well understood by health professionals that provide care for children paediatricians, paediatric nurses and others and also by parents and educators. For this to happen, we need to make an effort as healthcare professionals to convey adequately the importance of NE to children, parents and teachers.

Furthermore, we need to break the oncturna and the taboo surrounding NE that persists in our society. All efforts must strive to increase the wellbeing of children suffering from NE so that it can improve or resolve early. secundaris

It is essential that the child feels safe and free from stigmas that may affect his or her jocturna. In doing so, the child will not only enjoy a more comfortable childhood, but will also achieve bladder control earlier. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare in relation to the preparation and publication of this article. Epidemiological study in school population. Reference of this article.: The standardization of terminology of lower urinary tract function in children and adolescents: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems. Practical consensus guidelines for the management of enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis-theoretic background and practical guidelines.