Stress also is a significant predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of clinical coccidiosis. Transmission of E. caviae occurs with ingestion of sporulated oocysts . By considering host specificity, parasite structure and location, we identified these intracytoplasmic coccidian stages as Eimeria caviae. Lab Anim Sci. Feb;32(1) Diagnostic exercise. Eimeria caviae infection with concurrent Balantidium coli infection. Hankinson GJ, Murphy JC, Fox JG.

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Eimeria is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that includes various species capable of causing the disease coccidiosis in emieria such as cattlepoultryand smaller ruminants including sheep and goats. Species of this genus infect a wide variety of hosts. Thirty-one species are known to occur in bats Chiropteratwo in turtles, and named species infect fish.

Five species infect llamas and alpacas: A number of species infect rodents, including E. Others infect poultry E. The most prevalent species of Eimeria that cause coccidiosis in cattle are E.

In a young, susceptible calf it is estimated that as few as 50, infective oocysts can cause severe disease. The genus is named after the German zoologist Theodor Eimer — The Eimeria life cycle has an exogenous phase, during which the oocysts caivae excreted into the environment, and an endogenous phase, where parasite development occurs in the host intestine.

During the endogenous phase, several rounds of asexual reproductionor schizogony take place, after which the sexual differentiation of gametes and fertilisation occurs. Parasite cavia occurs via the oral-fecal route. Infections are common in farming environments where many animals are confined in a small space. There are two forms of oocyst: An infected host releases oocysts into the environment in their unsporulated form.

These contain a multi-layered cell wall making them highly resistant to environmental pressures. Once ingested, the oocysts undergo a process called excystation, whereby thousands of sporozoites are released into lumen of the intestine. In the case of E.

The motile sporozoites invade the enterocytes of small intestine, and migrate to their respective sites of development. Invasion is mediated through specialised membrane-bound structures on the surface of the parasite that release secretions. This results in the recognition of, and attachment to host cell receptors. This process is known as gliding motilitywhich is conserved across all eimetia of Apicomplexa.

Membrane glyconjugates have been proposed emieria potential host cell receptors for Eimeria ejmeria. This results in many nuclei developing within the schizont. Each nucleus develops into a merozoite. Invasion requires the formation of eiimeria moving junction between parasite and host cell membranes.

When schizonts rupture, merozoites are released, which either go on to re-infect more enterocytes or develop into either male or female gametes via the process of gametogenesis. These gametes fuse to form an oocyst, which is then released in its non-infectious, unsporulated form through the faeces of the host. Merozoite invasion also requires the formation of a moving junction, however the proteins involved in this process differs from those on sporozoites.

Diagnostic exercise. Eimeria caviae infection with concurrent Balantidium coli infection.

There is also a greater diversity of variant surface antigens found on the surface of merozoites. It is hypothesised that this may be due to the fact that merozoites are short-lived and a greater antigen repertoire would permit faster binding and invasion. The Eimeria lie within the family Eimeriidae. Attempts to subdivide this large taxonomic unit into separate genera have been made. Eimeriaa classification of eimeriid coccidian was largely based on morphological and life cycle details.

These species are tetrasporocystic with dizoic, nonbivalved sporocysts with or without Stieda dimeria. This new genus retains the majority of the species.


Eimeria – Wikipédia

These species are tetrasporocystic, dizoic, lack Stieda bodies, and have sporocyst walls consisting of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture. This genus contains about 20 species.

The species in this genus is tetrasporocystic and dizoic, and have dodecahedral sporocysts composed of two hexagonal, pyrimidal valves joined at their bases by a suture. This genus contains a single species, Crystallospora cristalloides. The species in this genus are tetrasporocystic, dizoic, possess Stieda bodies, and undergo merogony and gametogony on the lumenal surface of the intestinal tract. Three species are in this genus.

Out of these, comparing oocyst structures was the most commonly used method. A whole genome sequencing project is in vaviae with chosen species, Eimeria tenella. Sincethe sequencing and annotation of a further six avian Eimeria species genomes is in progress. Coccidiosis typically results in diarrhoeaweight loss and dehydration. A combination of these factors may result in poor growth and death of the animal, particularly amongst young. The severity of the disease is directly dependent on the number of infective Eimeria oocysts that are ingested.

However, in heavy infections, it may only take two weeks for many intestinal epithelial cells to be eumeria with either Eimeria meronts or gametocytes.

These cause the epithelial cells to burst, which causes significant damage to the intestine epithelial layer, resulting in the release of blood, fluid, and electrolytes into the intestine. Good animal husbandry practices and prophylactic application of anticoccidial drugs that target different stages of the parasite lifecycle, such as sulfonamidesionophores and toltrazurilare the preferred methods of disease prevention, particularly in the poultry industry.

The following drugs can be used for treatment of coccidiosis in cattle: However, it is often more effective to prevent this disease in cattle, which can be aided by the products lasalociddecoquinateand monensin. There is a growing problem of drug resistanceas well as possible drug residues in the meat once the animal is butchered.

As a result, other avenues of control are being explored, particularly vaccine development, although several live attenuated vaccines have been in use since the s.

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Infection with Eimeria results in life-long immunity to that particular parasite species, but does not give cross protection against other species. For these reasons, vaccines for control seem promising, of eimerja live attenuated vaccines are most effective. However, the search for highly immunogenic antigens and overcoming antigenic variation of the parasites remains a challenge. Immunity to the parasite varies depending on parasite and host species, as well as the site of invasion.

Eimeria aurati – goldfish Carassius auratus Eimeria baueri – crucian carp Carassius carassius Eimeria lepidosirenis – South American lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa Eimeria leucisci – common barbel Barbus barbus bocagei Eimeria rutili – European cagiae Leuciscus cephalus cabedaIberian nase Chondrostoma polylepis polylepis Eimeria vanasi – blue tilapia Oreochromis aureus.

Eimeria amphisbaeniarum – Mann’s worm lizard Amphisbaena manni Eimeria eimerix – Mann’s worm lizard A. Eimeria acervulina – chicken Gallus gallus domesticus Eimeria adenoeides – turkey Meleagris gallopavo Eimeria brunetti – chicken G.

Eimeria ahsata – goat Capra hircussheep Ovis aries Eimeria alabamensis – cattle Bos taurus Eimeria alijevi – goat C. Eimeria abramovi Eimeria acervulina Eimeria adenoides Eimeria ahsata Eimeria airculensis Eimeria alabamensis Eimeria albigulae Eimeria alijevi Eimeria alpacae Eimeria amphisbaeniarum Eimeria anatis Eimeria anguillae Eimeria ankarensis Eimeria anseris Eimeria arizonensis Eimeria arabukosokokensis Eimeria arnyi Eimeria arundeli Eimeria anseris Eimeria arkhari Eimeria arloingi Eimeria aspheronica Eimeria auburnensis Eimeria augusta Eimeria aurati Eimeria aythyae Eimeria azerbaidschanica Eimeria bactriani Eimeria bakuensis Eimeria bareillyi Eimeria baueri Eimeria battakhi Eimeria beckeri Eimeria beecheyi Eimeria berkinbaevi Eimeria brinkmanni Eimeria bombaynsis Eimeria bonasae Eimeria boschadis Eimeria bovis Eimeria brantae Eimeria brasiliensis Eimeria eimeeria Eimeria brinkmanni Eimeria brunetti Eimeria bucephalae Eimeria bufomarini Eimeria bukidnonensis.


Eimeria burdai Eimeria callospermophili Eimeria californicenis Eimeria cameli Eimeria canadensis Eimeria canis Eimeria caprina Eimeria caprovina Eimeria carinii Eimeria carpelli Eimeria catostomi Eimeria catronensis Eimeria caviae Eimeria cerdonis Eimeria citelli Eimeria chelydrae Eimeria christenseni Eimeria clarkei Eimeria clethrionomyis Eimeria coecicola Eimeria colchici Eimeria columbae Eimeria columbarum Eimeria contorta Eimeria coturnicus Eimeria couesii Eimeria crandallis Eimeria crassa Eimeria curvata Eimeria cylindrica Eimeria cynomysis Eimeria cyprini Eimeria dammahensis Eimeria danailovi Eimeria danielle Eimeria debliecki Eimeria deserticola Eimeria dispersa Eimeria dolichotis Eimeria dromedarii Eimeria duszynskii Eimeria ellipsoidalis Eimeria elongata Eimeria etheostomae Eimeria eutamiae Eimeria exigua Eimeria falciformis Eimeria fanthami.

Eimeria farasanii Eimeria farra Eimeria faurei Eimeria fernandoae Eimeria ferrisi Eimeria filamentifera Eimeria franklinii Eimeria fraterculae Eimeria freemani Eimeria fulva Eimeria funduli Eimeria gallatii Eimeria gallopavonis Eimeria gasterostei Eimeria gilruthi Eimeria daviae Eimeria gokaki Eimeria gonzalei Eimeria gorakhpuri Eimeria granulosa Eimeria grenieri Eimeria guevarai Eimeria hagani Eimeria haneki Eimeria hasei Eimeria hawkinsi Eimeria hermani Eimeria hindlei Eimeria hirci Eimeria hoffmani Eimeria hoffmeisteri Eimeria hybognathi Eimeria ictaluri Eimeria illinoisensis Eimeria innocua Eimeria intestinalis Eimeria intricata Eimeria iroquoina Eimeria irresidua Eimeria ivitaensis Eimeria judoviciani Eimeria kinsellai Eimeria koganae Eimeria kotlani Eimeria krijgsmanni Eimeria krylovi Eimeria kunmingensis Eimeria lagopodi.

Eimeria lamae Eimeria langebarteli Eimeria larimerensis Eimeria lateralis Eimeria laureleus Eimeria lepidosirenis Eimeria leucisci Eimeria ludoviciani Eimeria macusaniensis Eimeria magnalabia Eimeria marconii Eimeria maxima Eimeria melanuri Eimeria meleagridis Eimeria menzbieri Eimeria micropteri Eimeria minasensis Eimeria mitis Eimeria monacis Eimeria morainensis Eimeria moronei Eimeria mulardi Eimeria muta Eimeria myoxi Eimeria myoxocephali Eimeria natricis Eimeria necatrix Eimeria neitzi Eimeria nieschulzi Eimeria nigricani Eimeria nocens Eimeria nyroca Eimeria ojastii Eimeria ojibwana Eimeria onychomysis Eimeria oryzomysi Eimeria wimeria Eimeria os Emeria osmeri Eimeria ovata Eimeria ovinoidalis Eimeria palustris Eimeria eimmeria Eimeria parvula Eimeria pigra Eimeria pilarensis Eimeria pileata Eimeria pipistrellus Eimeria phocae.

Eimeria praecox Eimeria prionotemni Eimeria pseudospermophili Eimeria pulchella Eimeria pungitii Eimeria punonensis Eimeria ranae Eimeria reedi Eimeria reichenowi Eimeria ribarrensis Eimeria rjupa Eimeria rutili Eimeria salvelini Eimeria saitamae Eimeria saudiensis Eimeria separata Eimeria schachdagica Eimeria sevilletensis Eimeria sinensis Eimeria sipedon Eimeria somateriae Eimeria spermophili Eimeria squali Eimeria stiedai Eimeria stigmosa Eimeria striata Eimeria subepithelialis Eimeria surki Eimeria tamiasciuri Eimeria tedlai Eimeria tenella Eimeria truncata Eimeria truttae Eimeria uekii Eimeria uniungulati Eimeria ursini Eimeria vilasi Eimeria weddelli Eimeria weybridgensis Eimeria witcheri Eimeria vanasi Eimeria vermiformis Eimeria volgensis Eimeria wobati Eimeria wyomingensis Eimeria yemenensae Eimeria yukonensis Eimeria zuernii.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Eimeria Eimeria maxima oocysts Scientific classification Domain: University of New Mexico. Archived from the original on 4 October Retrieved November 8, Uses authors parameter link CS1 eimwria Explicit use of et al. International Journal for Parasitology. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Unsporulated oocyst, sporulated oocyst, sporozoite and second-generation merozoite”.

Eiemria and Avian Biology Reviews. A preliminary multi-gene and multi-genome approach”. Selection and characteristics of a precocious and attenuated line”. Retrieved 24 April Eimeriidae in a red-capped parrot Purpureicephalus spuriusKuhl, in Western Australia”. International Journal for Parasitology: Mesodiniea EimerriaMyrionecta.

Babesiidae Babesia Theileriidae Theileria. Gemmocystidae Gemmocystis Rhytidocystidae Rhytidocystis. Chromeraceae Chromera velia Vitrellaceae Vitrella brassicaformis. Alphamonadidae Alphamonas Voromonadidae Voromonas.

Squirmidae FilipodiumPlatyproteum. Retrieved from ” https: Apicomplexa genera Conoidasida Poultry diseases Veterinary protozoology Parasites of birds Parasites of equines. Uses authors parameter CS1 maint: Articles eiimeria ‘species’ microformats. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies.

This page was last edited on 10 Septemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Eimeria Schneider ,