ASTM. D. D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics. 1. Scope. This guide covers procedures for testing nonwoven fabrics. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering This standard is issued under the fixed designation D ; the number 1 This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on Textiles and.
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December 4th Reviewed: August 24th Published: Greige raw cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for use in absorbent nonwoven products.
The potential to use greige cotton by-products as an economical source for absorbent nonwoven blends is explored.
ASTM D Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
The nonwoven hydroentanglement of greige cotton lint with cotton gin motes and comber noils blends was analyzed for fiber surface polarity, swelling, and absorbance to assess properties with potential usefulness in absorbent nonwovens. Nonwoven fabrics made with cleaned greige cotton lint separately blended with comber noils and ginning motes at However, cellulose crystallite size varied. X-ray diffraction patterns of the three different cotton constituents displayed similar crystalline cellulose compositions.
The blended nonwoven materials possess absorbent properties characterized by similar moisture uptake 7. The crystallinity, electrokinetic, and water binding properties of the nonwoven by-product materials are discussed in the context of the molecular features water, cellulose, and greige cotton components that enhance potential uses as absorbent nonwoven end-use products.
In recent years, the preference to use cotton fibers in nonwoven absorbent products has increased. Cotton fiber is naturally renewable and biodegradable. Most of the cotton used at present in absorbent nonwovens is bleached cotton, including lint, gin motes, linters, comber noils, and the so-called other cotton textile processing wastes. However, the potential to use greige nonbleached cotton in nonwoven absorbent products has received increased attention based on innovations in cotton cleaning and nonwovens processes that open and expose the hydrophilic cellulosic component of greige cotton fiber to water absorption [ 1 – 3 ].
This affords an economical source of highly cleaned absorbent greige cotton nonwovens with the retention of properties inherent to the traditional cotton fabrics that generally require costly and eco-sensitive chemical scouring and bleaching processes.
Griege raw cotton gin motes are just one of several by-products viz. The cotton ginning by-products are used in numerous applications [ 4 – 9 ].
However, limited use of cotton gin motes is made in traditional textiles made with spun yarns. In addition, the processing innovations of modern nonwovens provide a facile conduit for efficiently blending these types of discounted by-products with greige cotton lint to explore new, value-added cotton-blend nonwoven products. Highly cleaned greige cotton fiber retains most of its natural, native protective membrane or surface coating of waxes and pectin native to the greige cotton fiber. In combination with surface-exposed cellulose from nonwoven hydroentanglement process conditions, unique fiber properties are retained when compared to scoured and bleached cotton.
The amphiphilic surface character in nonwoven greige cotton, which is a combination of the polarity balance between the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic elements of the cotton material, is suitable for the application to the material layer components of incontinence absorbent products and wipes [ 10 ]. Nonwoven greige cotton compares well with other commercial materials when analyzed for its performance as an incontinence layer surrounding the absorbent core.
The fluid dynamics of the electrochemical double-layer model enables measurement of functional properties similar to those that occur at the solid-liquid interface of incontinence materials zstm 12 ]. This chapter examines the electrokinetic properties of hydroentangled nonwoven materials made by blending clean greige cotton lint with greige cotton by-product fibers with a view to understanding the similarities the materials possess.
The three constituent cotton fibers employed in the nonwovens were evaluated for their relative cellulosic crystallinity in relation to their moisture uptake properties. Some of the blends also included polyester fibers for comparison as were previously examined [ 10 ]. Two different measures of moisture uptake are also reported. One method [ 15 ] is simple, portable, easy to use, and involves an infrared lamp to dry the samples. All weight loss is attributed to moisture. The other method is the recent ASTM Karl Fischer titration method for water content developed for lint cotton, raw and processed.
Water absorbency tests were also conducted. We report here the preparation, characterization, and electrokinetic analysis of cleaned greige cotton [ 16 ] in combination with gin motes and comber noils at two different blend ratios of the greige cotton and the by-products as a measure of the fabric polarity, swelling, and absorbent properties achievable with these fabric blends.
The properties of the cotton materials are discussed in light of their water binding properties related to potential absorbent applications. A commercially available bale of precleaned greige cotton was acquired from T. A quantity of cotton gin mote fibers was also obtained from T. The needle-punched webs of the different fiber blends were uniformly hydroentangled using a Fleissner MiniJet system Figure 1.
The system is equipped with one low water pressure jet head that wets the incoming feed web material on its top face, while two high water pressure jet heads alternatively impact the wetted substrate on either face. For all the fabrics, the low water pressure head was set to inject the water at 50 bars, and the two high water pressure heads were set at bars.
The fabric production speed was 5 m per minute. The resulting hydroentangled fabric was dried using a meter-wide, gas-fired drum dryer and wound onto a cardboard tube to form a compact fabric roll.
The hydroentangling line was flushed and cleaned after each fabric production trial. Diagram of a nonwovens hydroentanglement line. An outline schematic of the Fleissner MiniJet system used in the study. The AATCC drop test measures the time it takes for one drop of water applied to a fabric held in an embroidery hoop to be absorbed when the sheen disappears. The ATSM method uses a sample of fabric that is 76 mm wide and cut to a length that equals 5.
The sample is rolled into a cylindrical shape, upon itself, and placed in a basket of standardized weight and size. The basket is dropped from a height of 25 mm into a water bath, and the time it takes the sample and basket to sink is measured as sink time. After sinking, the sample is then allowed to remain submerged in water for 10 s. The basket is removed and allowed to drain for 10 s, and the sample is weighed to determine its water content.
The weight of the water is reported as the absorptive capacity grams of water held by 1 g of fabric. ASTM D—standard test method for water in lint cotton by oven evaporation combined with volumetric Karl Fischer titration. Streaming zeta potential experiments are carried out with an electrokinetic analyzer, which is manufactured in Ashland VA, USA, using the cylindrical cell developed for the measurement of fibrous samples. The pH dependence of the zeta potential is investigated with the background electrolyte of 1 mM KCl solution.
The swelling behavior of the incontinence products is measured using the Anton Paar analyzer with the cylindrical cell template. The pH of the sample is about 5.
The modification involved using an infrared lamp to dry the materials rather than a laboratory oven as called for in the standard methods.
The moisture measurements are based on weight loss and are taken with an infrared moisture balance Kett FDmanufactured by Kett Electric Laboratory in Tokyo, Japan. Approximately, a 1-g sample was used for each measurement on the Kett FD In order to determine the water content of cotton fibers via Karl Fischer titration KFTfiber samples must be conditioned to standard testing conditions, The samples were weighed into 0.
Each blend was formulated directly in the glass KFT vials by weight basis. The enclosed samples v1117 then placed into mason jars that had been acclimated in the conditioned lab.
The samples were then encapsulated in the jar right up until testing to maintain the environment. Prior to KFT testing cotton samples, blank vials were used for quality control measures. The water from the cotton sample from the vial is released and driven into the titration cell from which the percentage of moisture present is calculated from the volume of reagent consumed.
The water content in the blank vial was 0. After analysis, a visual observation of the containers revealed all samples were white; there was no discoloration atm scorching. Additionally, the polyester PES fibers had not melted. Empty sample bottles were weighed and then filled with 1 g samples and d117. Cottons were heated in a Yamato DKN mechanical convection oven with a L capacity and a mean flow rate of approximately 1. All weights were made in a standard conditioned laboratory.
The sample was secured in a paraffin base, which had a small effect on the comber noil pattern.
The modification was a short increase in the a -axis of the d111 cell to 7. A peak width at half maximum height of 1.
Additionally, the preferred orientation induced by pressing the sample pellet was compensated by a facility in the Mercury software, with a March-Dollase parameter of 1. The Scherrer formula was used to convert the peak width at half maximum pwhm to crystallite sizes perpendicular to the large peak with a shape constant of 1.
The Segal Crystallinity Index [ 20 ] was used to calculate the degree of relative crystallinity. Fiber qualities of materials used in this study, including fiber length and properties illustrative of the fiber nomenclature, were consistent with those previously reported for greige cotton, gin motes, and comber noils [ 21 ].
UltraClean cotton, which is a form of greige cotton [ 2 ], was separately combined with the cotton gin motes and comber noils, whereupon the blends were carded, crosslapped, and subjected to light needle punching prior to their separate hydroentanglement at 50 bar wet-out water pressure and bar d117 water pressure.
Figure 1 diagrams the process of hydroentanglement. Thus, depending on the hydroentangling process parameters and conditions [ 1 – 3 ], this approach increases hydrophobicity of the greige cotton nonwoven compared to an equivalent scoured and bleached cotton nonwoven product. The electrokinetic data presented in Figure 2 includes samples of the cotton blends investigated in this study. These two properties moisture uptake and satm promote fluid transport.
The increased swelling and relatively constant value for water uptake shown in Figure 2 can be contrasted with absorbency properties, as shown for the cotton blends in Table 3. The gin motes have lower density and higher surface area asgm thus promote hydrophilic transport of water in the fabric.
ASTM D – Standard Guide for Evaluating Nonwoven Fabrics
In addition, as discussed below, the smaller cellulose crystallite size of the gin motes is consistent with this and plays a role at a molecular level in the increased water absorption capacity observed in the cotton by-product nonwovens. There is little data on the presence of waxes and pectin in comber noils and gin motes, so a relative comparison of cotton cuticle contributions is not d11117.
Thus, aatm increased swelling due to increasing the ratio of UC may be a result of an additive contribution of waxes from the greige cotton, which are expected to contribute hydrophobicity to the fiber surface analogous to more hydrophobic fibers like polyester.
In addition, the similarity of the isoelectric points IEPs among the UltraClean cotton samples is consistent with the composition of the samples being cellulosic [ 13 ]. Electrokinetic data for the hydroentangled fabric samples made with the different fibers and their blends. It is an understatement to say that the nature of the binding of water to cotton plays a role in the swelling of the blended fabrics as are examined here.
The microstructure of cotton fibers allows the penetration of water, in the case of the greige cotton nonwovens studied here. Water-accessible sites of cellulose are formed when cotton contacted by the high-pressure water jets during the nonwoven hydroentanglement process, which enhances the exposure of the primary and secondary cell wall of the fiber to an aqueous environment and results in an increase in cellulose-bound water.
ASTM D 1117
A subsequent loosening of the fiber cuticle resulting in the exposure of the cellulosic portion of the fiber is evidenced in the SEM image of nonwoven greige cotton shown in Figure 3. Thus, the hydroentanglement process promotes the disruption of the fiber cuticle that retains some wax and pectin while exposing cellulose fibrils and microfibrils to water penetration.
It is also interesting to speculate how variation in cellulose crystallite size may affect binding of water to the cellulosics of this study.
The X-ray diffraction patterns for the individual gin motes, comber noils, and greige cotton UCC are shown in Figure 4. The spectra all show the profile characteristic of cellulose I [ 1819 ].