Linas-Marcoussis Agreement. 1. At the invitation of the President of the French Republic, a Round Table of the Ivorian political forces met in Linas-Marcoussis. The First Ivorian Civil War was a conflict in the Ivory Coast that began in Although most of . In , various challenges to the Linas-Marcoussis Accord occurred. Violent flare-ups and political deadlock in the spring and summer led to . H □ fl Economic Dimensions of Peace Accords in West Africa. 29 mmm of peace . Linas-Marcoussis Peace Agreement and, subsequently, the Ouagadou.
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Although most of the fighting ended by latethe country remained split in two, with a rebel-held Muslim north and a government-held Christian south [ acord needed ]. Hostility increased and raids on foreign troops and civilians rose. As of [update]the region was tense, and many said the UN and the French military failed to calm the civil war.
First Ivorian Civil War
A peace agreement to end the conflict was signed on 4 March The Ivorian elections took place in October after being delayed six times. Fighting resumed on 24 February over the impasse on the election results, with the New Force rebels capturing Zouan-Hounienand clashes in Abobo, Yamoussoukro and around Anyama  .
Twenty-six percent of the population was of foreign origin, particularly from Burkina Fasoa poorer country to the north. An economic downturn due to a deterioration of the terms of trade between Third World and developed countries worsened conditions, exacerbating the underlying cultural and political issues. Finally, unemployment forced a part of the urban population to return to the fields, which they discovered had linss exploited.
Violence was turned initially matcoussis African foreigners. Ethnic violence had already existed between owners of lands and their hosts particularly in the west side of the country, between Bete and Dd, Bete and Lobi.
Since independence, people from the center of the country, Baoules, have been encouraged to move to fertile lands of the west and south-west of the country where they have been granted superficialities to grow cocoa, coffee and comestibles. Years later, some Bete have come to resent these successful farmers. Voting became difficult for these immigrants as they were refused voting rights.
Ouattara represented the predominantly Muslim north, particularly the poor immigrant workers from Mali and Burkina Faso working on coffee and cocoa plantations. Troops, many of whom originated from the north of the country, mutinied in the early hours of 19 September They launched attacks in many cities, including Abidjan.
By midday they had control of the north of the country. Their principal claim relates to the definition of who is a citizen of Ivory Coast and so who can stand for election as Presidentvoting rights and their representation in government in Abidjan.
There is some dispute as to what actually happened that night. The government said he had died leading a coup attempt, and state television showed pictures of his body in the street. However, it was widely claimed that his body had been moved after his death and that he had actually been murdered at his home along with fifteen other people.
Alassane Ouattara took refuge in the French embassy, and his home was burned down. Attacks were launched almost simultaneously in most major cities; the government forces maintained control of Abidjan and the south, but the new rebel forces had taken the north and based themselves in Bouake. Laurent Gbagbo considered deserters from the army, supported by interference from Burkina Fasoas the cause of destabilization.
Eventually France sent soldiers to man a peace line and requested help from the UN. The rebels were immediately well armed, not least because to begin with most were serving soldiers; it has been claimed they were also given support by Burkina Faso.
Additionally, government supporters claimed the rebels were supported by France; however, rebels also denounced France as supporting the government, and French forces quickly moved between the two sides to stop the rebels from mounting new attacks on the south. Once they had regrouped in Bouake, the rebels quickly threatened to move southwards to attack Abidjan again.
France deployed the troops it had based in Ivory Coast, on 22 September, and blocked the rebels’ path. The French said they had acted to protect their nationals and other foreigners, and they went into the northern cities to bring out expatriates from many nations. The USA gave limited support.
On 17 October, a cease-fire was signed, and negotiations started. French troops dispatched to evacuate foreigners battled rebels near Man on 30 November. The clashes left at least ten rebels dead and one French soldier injured.
According to a French spokesman, French forces repelled the assault and counterattacked, killing 30 rebels.
From 15 to 26 Januarythe various parties met linass Linas – Marcoussis in France to attempt to negotiate a return to peace.
The parties signed a compromise deal on 26 January. The parties agreed to work together on modifying national identity, eligibility for citizenship, and land tenure laws which many observers see as among the root causes of the conflict.
The end of the civil war was proclaimed on 4 July. An attempt at a putschorganized from France by Ibrahim Coulibalywas thwarted on 25 August by the French secret service.
On 4 March, the PDCI suspended its participation in the government, being in dissension with the FPI President Gbagbo’s party on nominations to office within the administration and in public companies.
On 25 March, a peace march was organized to protest against the blocking of the Marcoussis agreements. Demonstrations had been prohibited by decree since 18 March, and the march was repressed by the armed forces: This repression caused the withdrawal from the government of several opposition parties. A UN report of 3 May estimated at least dead, and implicated highly placed government officials.
The government of national reconciliation, initially composed of 44 members, was reduced to 15 after the dismissal of three ministers, among them Guillaume Soropolitical head of the rebels, on 6 May. The French consequently were in an increasingly uncomfortable situation. The two sides each accused France of siding with the other: On 25 June, a French soldier was killed in his vehicle by a government soldier close to Yamoussoukro. Invarious challenges to the Linas-Marcoussis Accord occurred.
Violent se and political deadlock in the spring and summer led to the Accra III talks in Ghana. Unfortunately, those deadlines — late September for legislative reform and 15 October for rebel disarmament — were not met by the parties. The ensuing political and military deadlock was not broken until 4 November The timetable outlined in the final version of the Linas-Marcoussis Accord was not respected.
The conditions of eligibility for the presidential poll were not re-examined, because Laurent Gbagbo claimed the right to choose a prime minister, not in qccord with agreements suggested in Accra. Faced with political impasselinxs disarmament whose beginning had been envisaged fifteen days after the constitutional modifications did not begin in mid-October.
A sustained assault on the press followed, with newspapers partial to the north being banned and two presses destroyed.
Dissenting radio stations linnas silenced. UN soldiers opened fire on hostile demonstrators taking issue with the disarmament of the rebels on 11 October. They intercepted two trucks of the FANCI full lijas heavy weapons travelling towards the demarcation line.
On 28 October, they declared an emergency in the north of the country. French forces conducted an overland attack on Yamassoukro Airport, destroying two Sus and three attack helicopters, and two airborne military helicopters were shot down over Abidjan.
One hour after the attack on the camp, the French Army established control of Abidjan Airport. France flew in reinforcements and put three jets in Gabon on standby. Simultaneously, the Young Patriots of Abidjan rallied by the State media, plundered possessions of French nationals. Several hundred Westerners, mainly French, took refuge on the roofs of their buildings to escape the mob, and were then evacuated by French Army helicopters.
France sent in reinforcements of men based in Gabon and France while foreign civilians were evacuated from Abidjan airport on French and Spanish military airplanes. A disputed number of rioters were killed after French troops opened fire.
Laurent Gbagbo founded the FPI main opposition party to restore modernization in the country again, by building infrastructure, transport, communication, water and clean energy. Lastly, on the morning of 13 November expatriate French had returned to France, and other European expatriates had left.
The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution on 15 November, marcoyssis an arms embargo on the parties. The resulting Pretoria Agreement declared the immediate and final cessation of all hostilities and the end of the war throughout the national territory.
Presidential elections were due to be held on 30 Octoberbut in September the UN Secretary General, Kofi Annanannounced that the planned elections could not be held in time. On 4 Marcha peace agreement was signed between the government and acdord New Forces in OuagadougouBurkina Faso.
New Forces leader Guillaume Soro was subsequently appointed prime minister and took office in early April. Gbagbo declared that the war was over. On 19 May, the disarmament of pro-government militia began as the Resistance Forces of the Great West gave up over a thousand weapons in a ceremony in Guigloat which Gbagbo was present.
Soro was unhurt, although four others were said to have been killed and ten were said to have been wounded.
Gbagbo visited the north for the first time since the outbreak of the war for a disarmament ceremony, the “peace flame”, on 30 July; Marcoussie was also present. This ceremony involved burning weapons to symbolize the end of the conflict. On 27 NovemberGbagbo and Soro signed another agreement in ,arcoussisthis one to hold the planned election before the end of June On 28 November, Gbagbo flew to Korhogo, then to Soro’s native Ferkessedougouat the start of a three-day visit to the far north, the first time he had been to that part of the country since the outbreak of the war, marking another step toward reconciliation.
As of 18 May the UN forcesas result marcoussiis the continued flaring up of ethnic as well as rebel-government conflict, have experienced difficulty maintaining peace oinas the supposedly neutral “confidence zone”, particularly in the west of the country. This area has a mixture of ethnic groupsnotably the Dioula who are predominantly Muslim and typically aligned with the New Forceswho typically sway to both government and rebel loyalties.
This conflict of interests has created widespread looting, pillaging and various other human rights abuses amongst groups based on the typical political alignment of their ethnicity.
Inover 1, protesters invaded a UN base in Guiglo and took control but were forced back by armed UN llinas.
A total of protesters died and left 1 UN peacekeeper dead and another wounded. This is not to say that there are no regions where ethnic groups co-exist peacefully, however, the UN troops lack the man-power to prevent inter-ethnic violence. The — post-election dispute between former president Laurent Gbagbo and Alassane Ouattara, which left 3, people dead.
In a national independent commission set up to investigate atrocities of hostilities, during the post-elections. They found that pro-Gbagbo forces were responsible for the death of 1, people, while forces fighting for Ouattara killed people.
The presidential elections that should have been organized in were postponed until October The preliminary results announced by the Electoral Commission showed a loss for Gbagbo in favor of his rival, former prime minister Alassane Ouattara.
Marcooussis charges were contradicted by international observers.
Linas-Marcoussis Agreement | UN Peacemaker
The report of the results led to severe tension and violent incidents. After the inauguration of Gbagbo, Ouattara, recognized as the winner by most countries and the United Nations, organized an alternative inauguration.
These events raised fears of a resurgence of the civil war. Clashes between Laurent Gbagbo’s and the New Force rebels occurred in the western town of Teapleu on 24 February