Microcontrollers- 2nd Ed. Raj Kamal Pearson Education. 3. Port P3. Port P2. P ort P. 1. P ort P. 0. Timer. MCU. MCU (CPU + Internal Resources). The families differ mostly in instruction sets and architecture. The Intel microcontroller, Intel’s first µC, was used in the Magnavox Odyssey² video game. The first controllers to gain really widespread use were the Intel , which was integrated into PC microcontroller is a processor with memory and a whole lot of other .. A basic CPU architecture is depicted in Figure

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Share buttons are a little bit lower. Published by Eric Simmons Modified over 3 years ago. The first Intel 8-bit microcontroller was the Its architecture is the same as the A later introduction, theexpands the size of ROM and RAM, but otherwise the architecture is the same as the When used to address external memory, two ports provide microconrtoller memory addressing. The internal ROM is for program memory space.

The program microconntroller space is a read-only space.

The processor cannot write data or read data from these memory locations. It is a read-write memory space. The processor can read data from this memory space and can write data to this memory space. It cannot execute program instructions from this memory space. Part of this memory space is often referred to as archjtecture purpose registers.

Although addressable as memory locations, these registers must be used for their intended purpose. If more program memory ROM is needed, the internal 4-Kbyte memory can be expanded by additional Kbytes, giving the a full kbytes program memory space.

The external memory must start at memory location H and can be up to a full 64kbytes. You always have full use of all kbytes of the external memory space. This memory is addressed separately from the internal bytes of RAM.


It is a very common technique used to change the program operating in a remote microprocessor-based controller. By calling some memory locations registers, we can access them with single-byte instruction.

The general instructions can address a byte of data at these memory locations. Other special instructions can address any individual bit in these memory locations. Bit instructions are very powerful tools when you need to process data words from external hardware devices. The first 32 memory locations can be used as four register banks. There are eight registers in each bank. A register is an 8-bit read-write memory location which is addressed in a single-byte instruction.

Because these single-byte instructions have only 3 bits available to address the register, they address only one of eight registers. Each special-function register is dedicated to a single job. The accumulator is byte- or bit-addressable. It contains the operands or one of the operands of arithmetic or logical instruction and holds the result of that instruction.

The B register is used during multiply and divide operations as one 8-bit source and to hold the high-order 8 bits.

block diagram of microcontroller datasheet & applicatoin notes – Datasheet Archive

It also can be as a simple scratch-pad register. It is a bit-addressable register.

These bits can be set to select the current register bank or can be read to find out what register bank is selected The stack pointer register is an 8-bit register, so it only addresses memory locations within the internal bytes memory. It is incremental just before data is stored by using the push or call instruction, or the interrupt. The data pointer holds a bit address used when addressing external memory.

The instructions let you work with the data pointer as a bit register or as two separate 8-bit registers. If needed, a single- or double-byte instruction can operate on either the High or Low byte.


When a port is to be used as an output port the data is put into the corresponding special register. When a port is to be used as an input port, the value FFH must first be written to it. ALE The address latch enable pin provides an output pulse for latching the low-order byte of the address during access to external memory.

This allows bit addresses to be used. EA The external access pin is taken low for the microprocessor to access only external program code; when high it automatically accesses internal or external code, depending on the address. The timer control register TCON contains status and control bit for timer 0 and timer 1. The MicroController In this module, we will be discussing the MCS family of microcontroller, in particular thewhich is the generic IC representative. The Microprocessor Architecture.

Contents The and its Buses. Pin Details of Pins Port 1 Each of these pins can be configured as an input or an output. The Microprocessor Theannounced inwas the first bit microprocessor introduced by Intel Corporation is bit MPU.

Intel MCS-48

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